Peace for Life: Korean Christian Movement
International Conference on Peace for Life in North East Asia
Korea Christian Faculty Fellowship
15. – 19. May 2005 at Roman Catholic Retreat Center, Uiwang, Korea
The Korean Christian Movement and Peace Building
A Brief Historical Survey
This paper attempts to trace the historical developments of the efforts put forth by the Christian movement in Korea toward building peace in North East Asia. The basic under-standing in writing this paper is that the Korean Christian movement has undertaken its role of building peace in North East Asia primarily through its efforts for establishing peace and realizing the reunification of Korea. As such, this paper has primarily sought to identify the basic premises held by the Korean Christian movement with regard to such ef-forts, and to identify the historical process through which it developed and received ex-pression. In order to deal with the substance of the topic being studied, the paper has en-gaged in a review of documentary evidence related to the Korean Christian movement's in-volvement in the issues of peace and reunification of Korea. In the course of conducting this documentary review an attempt has been made to analyze the rationale and the key concepts that have been central to the Korean Christian movement's activities for building peace and realizing reunification. An attempt has also been made to interpret the degree to which the activities of the Korean Christian movement have been successful in the hopes that directions for future activities may be discerned.
There needs to be offered, at the outset, some clarification as to the terms used in this pa-per. The term "Christian" as it is used here refers only to the Protestant form of Christian-ity in Korea. Additionally, although the term "Christian movement in Korea" and "Korean Christian movement" are used throughout, the paper focuses mainly, if not solely, on the work of those Christian communities involved with the National Council of Churches in Korea (NCCK). Although there have been programmes and projects initiated by other Christian communities in Korea not directly related to the NCCK, this paper will not deal with them directly. In fact, this paper will not deal with actual programmes or projects. Rather, it will focus primarily upon the Statements or Declarations that were issued by the NCCK itself, those issued at the conclusion of events sponsored by the NCCK, whether individually or in conjunction with other organizations, and those made by its member churches. The primary document source that has been utilized in writing this paper is the Hanguk Kyowhe Pyunghwatongilundong Jaryojip, 1980-2000 (The Documents Relating to the Peace and Reunification Movement of the Korean Church, 1980-2000) compiled by the Committee on Reunification of the NCCK and published in November, 2000. In this sense, this paper is an effort to trace the historical development of one part, albeit a very impor-tant one, of the Korean Christian movement's involvement in building peace. Also, as the dates on the primary source of documentary evidence show, this paper is limited to those Statements and Documents which were issued during the years 1980 to 2000.
This paper is composed of three parts. The first part is an analysis of the documentary evi-dence. In analyzing the documentary evidence a sustained effort has been made to trace the historical development of the Korean Christian movement's rationale for its involvement. An effort has also been made to identify some of the central terms and concepts employed by the Korean Christian movement in their peace building activities. The second part com-prises a critical assessment of the various action plans that were set out in the documents. Here an attempt has been made to ascertain the extent to which such action plans were ini-tiated and followed through. This was done by attempting to identify confirmation of such in successive documents, and also partly by engaging the NCCK personally via telephone exchange and visits to their official website. As the title suggests, in addition to a historical review of the activities thus far, this paper attempts to present a prospect toward the future of the Korean Christian movement's involvement in the peace building process. It is diffi-cult, if not impossible to read history into the future. However, despite the fact that any "prospect for the future" is limited to a finite being's intellectual speculation, this paper has sought to incorporate in the third part a constructive way forward in light of the findings in parts one and two.
Part One — The Historical Development of the Korean Christian Movement: Its Rationale and Central Terms
In order to properly understand how the Korean Christian movement's activities
for reunification of the divided land and people of Korea relates to the wider issue of build-ing peace in North East Asia, it is necessary for us to understand the background to the pre-sent state of division.
The most important fact to remember when discussing the issues of peace and reunifica-tion with regard to the Korean people and their land is that this division was imposed upon them from outside. The Korean people were not the ones immediately responsible for the division of their land and people. As the documents issued by the Korean Christian movement continue to point out, "the division of the Korean people and our land was the result of the Cold War initiated by the super-powers of the time."1 The Christian move-ment in Korea has long recognized that the division of the Korean peninsula is a "struc-tural evil" reflective of the competition between the presumed super-powers surrounding the Korean peninsula. Not only was the division of Korea a structural evil imposed upon the Korean people, but the reality of division "has also been the root cause of the structural evil present within the societies of both North and South Korea."2
The Korean people were,•and continue to be, the victims of world geo-politics. It is for this reason that the issue of building peace and reunifying the divided Korean peninsula is directly related to the issue of securing peace in North East Asia. The global Christian community has been keenly aware that, "the divided Korean peninsula is at the heart of the conflict in which the entire region has been caught up."3 In the past this conflict was between the Soviet Union and the United States expressed through what is known as the Cold War. Presently, this conflict continues with the clashing of interests around the Korean peninsula between China, the U.S.A., Japan, and to certain degrees Russia. The conflict has always been that of whose might and influence will control the flow of power in the region. In such a geo-political context the fate of the Korean peninsula and the Korean people seems to be at the mercy of the presumed super-powers. Sadly, the statement of the Ko-rean Christian movement more than twenty years ago which described the situation facing the Korean people as one in which "the domination and exertion of influence in the fulfill-ing of our national destiny by outside parties, particularly the super-powers of the world, continues even today" rings true in today's reality as well.
To a certain extent the blame for the initial division of the land and people of Korea can be placed firmly at the feet of the nations which were presumed to be super-powers at that moment in history. One may also attribute much of the causes for the state of division continuing today to the activities of the so-called super-powers of today to undermine the peaceful reunification of the Korean peninsula. However, it would be wrong and dishonest if the Korean people did not come clean and admit their compliance and contribution in making the present situation what it is today. For in all honesty, the governments of both South and North Korea have not been shy about capitalizing on the state of division to maximize their control and consolidation of power. The Korean people have generally be-come so accustomed to the present state of division that reunification is often presented as an ideal worth aspiring for, but hardly a reality that many would seriously consider striving for. As the Christian community pointedly stated in 1988, "the differences in ideologies on which this division is founded are abused to preserve the .present political powers and ob-struct the flourishing independent democratic movements of the people."4
The realization that "many of the exploitations, oppressions and turmoil in the human community (in Korea) originate from the present situation of division of our nation's peo-ple and motherland"5 was one of the primary reasons why the Korean Christian movement became involved in the activities for reunification. The Christian movement in Korea had long been involved in the struggle for democracy, justice and human rights in Korea from the 1960s onwards. Increasingly, they found that their struggles were becoming the targets of government propaganda which labeled them as communist agitators and embroiled them in controversies over ideological issues. Many who had dared to devote themselves to the democratic movement and speak out against the tyrannical authoritarian government were charged with breaching national security laws. These laws were used as a `fit all' solu-tion for oppressing any sort of organized activity for democracy. The Korean Christian movement came to realize that a truly democratic and just society could not be affected in South Korea without addressing the present state of division.
As the Korean Christian movement sought to engage themselves in the efforts of building peace and reunifying Korea, they came upon a challenge that had not been properly ac-knowledged in previous years. This challenge was coming to terms with their own role with regard to the present state of division. Sadly enough, in many ways the Christian communi-ties of both sides had been accomplices in perpetuating the division of the Korean people. 4
Indeed, it may be argued that the majority of the Christians in both North and South Ko-rea did not knowingly sell themselves out to power politics. However, it is difficult to deny that the sin of omission, that of failing to speak out against wrongs and injustices perpetu-ated in the name of ideology and national security, is equally severe and harmful as that of commission.
The Korean Christian movement painfully recognized that, "the structure and logic of na-tional division have invaded the Korean Church, preventing the Church from fulfilling its missional calling as reconcilers."6 Not only did the Korean Christian movement find itself guilty of "not preventing the tragedy of national division" it also found itself "complacently satisfied with the status quo of division and consciously or subconsciously, directly and in-directly justifying the division of our land and people."7
Despite the painful difficulty of having to face the hard truth of the reality in which they 'were standing, the confession of the Korean Christian movement that, "throughout the history of our national division the churches of Korea have not only remained silent and continuously ignored the ongoing stream of movement for autonomous reunification of our people, but have further sinned by trying to justify the division"8 was a powerful liber-ating statement. The Korean Christian community humbly acknowledged that, "the Chris-tians of both North and South have made absolute idols of the ideologies enforced by their respective systems"9 and confessed that this was a "betrayal of the ultimate sovereignty of God.”10 This deep and humble searching within itself was a crucial process that emanci-pated the Korean Christian movement from the shackles of guilt and empowered it to ad-dress the issue of reunification as a God given mandate.
By engaging in the process of confession the Korean Christian movement was able to re-discover its "commission from God to be God's servants as peace makers."11 The Korean Christian movement's involvement in the issues relating to reunification were no longer merely actions of social engagement. Rather, they were expressions of faith being con-fessed through action. The Korean Christian movement's mandate to involve themselves in the peaceful reunification of the Korean people was no longer an issue of choice. The Ko-rean Christian movement had come to realize that their "concern and efforts for unifica-tion are an issue of faith."12 The following statement issued at an international consultation sums up quite succinctly the position of the Korean Christian movement: 5
"We, the churches of Korea, believe that all Christians have now been called to work as apostles of peace (Colossians 3:15); that we are commanded by God to overcome today's reality of confrontation between our divided people — who share the same blood but who are separated into south and north; and that our mission task is to work for the realization of unification and peace."13
This then, was the governing rationale which promoted within the Korean Christian movement a commitment to activities for peace and reunification. In addition to this con-firmation that their activities were a confession of faith there was the acknowledgment that, "the reconciliation of the Korean people and the peaceful unification of our land is a kai-rotic calling.”14 In challenging the established powers of the time, the Korean Christian movement saw itself as heralds of a new period of justice. This sense of its prophetic call-ing to usher in a new period of peace and reconciliation was another of the important ra-tionales that sustained the Korean Christian movement's involvement in the arduous path to securing peace and reunification on the Korean peninsula. The Korean Christian move-ment firmly held to the belief that, "responding to the deep aspirations and longing for re-unification held by the Korean people is a mandate that has been bestowed to us by God.”15 Therefore, the greatest task that the Korean Christian movement faced at that par-ticular point in time was "the reunification of the land and people of Korea" without which the Korean Christian movement felt that, "true national development and prosperity can-not be attained.”16
Another of the reasons stated by the Korean Christian movement for their involvement in activities of peace and reunification was the belief that, "the issue of reunification is not the prerogative of the government, but must be an issue that is discussed with the whole of the Korean people."17 The Korean Christian movement held firmly to their belief that "be-cause the journey toward reunification is one that must be traversed by the whole of the Korean people, it must be consulted and debated through a process in which all members of our nation may participate."18 In instigating its systematic involvement in the issues of peace and reunification, the Korean Christian movement was confirming the role of the Church in helping to "remove the social taboos that have been formulated during the years in which division has become solidified." This was because the Korean Christian move-ment saw "the process of removing the social taboos (as being) the shortest path to build-ing an open society, and also (serving) as a basis for a democratic society." Also, by work-ing to remove the taboos associated with the division of Korea the Korean Christian movement was able announce to Korean society "the proclamation of the reign of God" which "signifies that all ideologies and social systems have been relativised and placed un-der his judgment."19
3) Central Terms
In order to express the above rationales the Korean Christian movement utilized five prin-ciples which were set out in the "Hanguk Kyowhe Pyunghwatongil Seonunmoon," (The Ko-rean Church Statement on Peace and Reunification).20 These were 1) the Principle of Autonomy; 2) the Principle of Peace; 3) the Principle of National Collaboration; 4) the Principle of Humanitarianism; and 5) the Principle of People's Participation. The Korean Christian movement saw these principles not only applying to their activities outside the realm of government policy, but actually working alongside and influencing policy decision processes. In fact, the first three principles echo the principles that were set out in the July 4 Joint Communique issued by the North and South Korean governments in 1972. The motivation for stating these five principles was the recognition that, "reunification must bring about not only the common good and benefit of the people and the nation, but must provide the maximum protection of human freedom and dignity.”21
Another set of important terms for the Korean Christian movement's activities in relation to the peace and reunification movement were set out in the "Jubilee Declaration" of 1995. The three terms central to the Jubilee Declaration were "Co-Existing Reunification", "Con-ciliar Reunification", and "Creative Reunification".
The significance of these terms was that they concentrated on providing content to the framework of the peace and reunification movement. These terms also sought to embrace the political reality of both North and South Korea without alienating either side. In pre-senting these three ideals of reunification the Korean Christian movement was attempting to point to a way by which the Korean people can learn to live together in mutual respect, despite differences and engage each other creatively to work out what framework would best suit our needs and address our concerns.
Part Two — Critical Assessment of Action Plans
In the course of the twenty year period that is covered in the Hanguk Kyowhe Pyunghwa-tongilundong Jaryojip, 1980-2000 (The Documents Relating to the Peace and Reunification Movement of the Korean Church, 1980-2000) there were various action plans that were set forth as resolutions and recommendations. Due to the limitations in space and time, I will only concentrate on three areas.
The Korean Christian movement stated that, "the churches should promote efforts to fa-cilitate contacts between families separated as a result of the division of Korea" They per-ceived that, "the solution of humanitarian problems is important in itself, but should also be seen as a step towards dealing with the larger political issues."22 While it is true that the advocacy of the Korean Christian movement and its cooperation with other concerned groups, such as the Red Cross, have contributed to a limited success in divided family members meeting each other there has not been a creative and workable resolution to the issue. The fact remains that many thousands still have no news of their loved ones.
While there has been much advancement in economic cooperation between North and South Korea there appears to be little concern or interest for resolving this major humani-tarian crisis. Unfortunately, it would appear that this lack of concern and interest is not lim-ited to the government. I think it would be fair to say that the Korean Christian movement has also become lax in taking this issue forward.
2)Learning from the Experience of Others
The Korean Christian movement stated that, "ways should be found to continue this dia-logue with churches which have the experience of living and witnessing within socialism, recognizing the uniqueness of the Korean and other situations in the region."23 While it is true that we have engaged in conversation with and cooperated with churches and Chris-tians from the U.S., Japan, Taiwan, Germany and others the sphere of interaction has been limited. It appears, at present as well, that the contacts and the degree of cooperation and solidarity that we had with the Christians in these countries is waning. It is important to constantly work to keep up the network of solidarity and to share with all the interested parties the developments that are presently taking place in Korea. The international net-work of solidarity was vital in getting us to where we are and it will continue to be impor-tant to maintain this network. The Korean Christian movement must not become compla-cent and think that because we are now able to initiate direct contact with the Christians in North Korea that we can go the road to peace and reunification alone. The present geo-political context in which we find ourselves, I think, is sufficient to show that the road to true peace and reunification is still one that must be traveled in cooperation and solidarity.
Another dimension of learning from the experience of others is with regards to other churches in Asia. Despite the fact that the Korean Christian movement is an active mem-ber of the Christian Council of Asia we have not utilized to the fullest extent our neighbours who are also members. The Korean Christian movement has been slow in initi-ating exchange and cooperation with churches in present socialist countries, such as those in Indochina. It would seem that the Christians in these countries can provide us with rich experiences of living and witnessing within a socialist society. Our learning experience with these churches can help us to develop creative and productive ways in which to engage our Christian brothers and sisters in North Korea by providing us with a framework of reference through which we may better understand their situation.
3)Increasing the Participation of Women and Youth
The Korean Christian movement correctly proclaims that, "women and young people, too often prevented from participating and leading, claim their rightful place in the search for peace and justice.”24
It is true that the Korean Christian movement has made significant advances in incorporat-ing the participation of women and youth in its life and witness. However, we are still faced with the challenge of making their participation such that it is not a quota based exception to the "norm", but rather an inherent manifestation of who we are and how we think and behave. Ironically, the Christian movement in Korea is faced with a strong challenge to democraticize itself and to open itself up to new interpretations of participatory decision making processes.
One of the issues with regard to increasing the participation of women and youth in the peace and reunification movement is language. The Korean Christian movement must find a way of expressing the issues related to the peace and reunification movement that will not marginalize women, youth, and others. In order for the peace and reunification movement to truly conform to its stated principle of people's participation, it must discover new and creative ways of expressing itself in terms that can be appropriated by the people.
One of the difficulties that one finds with action plans set forth in resolutions and recom-mendations stems from the fact that one is tempted to list up all that catches the imagina-tion. While it is certainly true that we need to maintain a clear sense of vision and hope, it is also true that one must take stock of the reality and speak in terms of what can actually be achieved. Also, it is also necessary to periodically assess one's progress in terms of the vari-ous action plans that one has set out to achieve. This is because actions tend to accumulate and build into each other. Therefore, without a periodic assessment of what one has set out to achieve and determining to what extent it has been accomplished, then we run into the danger of being prolific and rich in words while becoming poor and sparse in results.
Part Three — Prospects for Ways Forward
Recognizing the fact that this paper may also be tempted to set out idealistic goals without comprehending the complexities of bringing those ideals into reality I will limit myself to three activities that I see as possibly attainable in the near future.
1. Developing a White Paper for Peace and Reunification
In the Hanguk Kyowhe Pyunghwatongil Seonunmoon (The Korean Church Statement on Peace and Reunification) there was a resolution put forth to produce a White Paper "on peace for the Korean churches so that the unification movement does not become a blind or reckless journey." It was envisaged that, "this white paper will establish the apologia and method of praxis for the Christian movement's role in peaceful unification." The rationale for such a document was, "in order that everyone involved in the peaceful unification movement may be coordinated and be in solidarity with one another." Unfortunately, such a document has never been published.
Given the wide range of organizations and individuals who are presently involved in the peace and reunification movement it would appear that the time has passed for the devel-opment of a White Paper. However, as the old saying states, "It is better late than never." The fact that we have such diversity in conceptions of, methodologies for, and attitudes towards the issues of peace and reunification attenuate the need for a comprehensive re-search and analysis that can help to guide us. Unless we are able to devise a coherent way of working together in the common movement for peace and reunification we may dis-cover that our words and actions become trajectories of conflict and competition.
Dr. Kim, Yong-Bock states in his paper of the need for a "People's Charter on Peace for Life, as the base upon which peace policies and actions can be developed and convivability of all living beings in North East Asia can be cultivated". This seems to me to be almost identical to the rational expressed in 1988 for the need to develop a White Paper on Peace and Reunification. The present situation places before the Korean Christian movement a challenge to bring to reality its ideals and vision for peace and reunification.
It is important for us to constantly bear in mind that the process by which a People's Char-ter is developed must be a participatory and accumulative bottom upward movement. In other words, it should begin with the social biography of the people. The Charter must reflect the concerns, needs, and aspirations of the people as they are able to express it. This would mean beginning where the people are in terms of the knowledge and awareness of the issues surrounding peace and reunification, or even a lack of any. Only through the learning process of the people which accumulates in their being empowered to express themselves clearly will a People's Charter on Peace for Life truly be owned and lived by the people. The role and responsibility of the academics is not to speak to or attempt to speak for the people. Rather, their role is to learn to speak with the people. In this way the aca-demics and the more knowledgeable themselves can also become the people who express themselves in the Charter.
2. Sharing of Experiences and Widening Participation
Despite the fact that the interaction of North and South Christians has been taking place for the last twenty years the degree of informed knowledge possessed by the average Chris-tian in South Korea is regrettably small. Although the Korean Christian movement has constantly expressed the need for and desire to engage in educational programmes related to peace and reunification, the actual commitment in terms of people, time and money has not been significant.
With the change in the social context of South Korea many people are no longer satisfied with hearing about another persons experience. The development of the Diamond Moun-tains as a tourist attraction has allowed many South Koreans to personally set foot on North Korean soil. The meeting and interaction with North Korean guides who show the hikers/tourists from South Korea the beauties of the Diamond Mountains means that many who have had the privilege of making the journey have come face to face with the other, the North Korean. Therefore, they are now able to see that they truly are human, as much as we are, and some find that the North Koreans are quite likable.
However, although many Christians have visited the Diamond Mountains in a private ca-pacity as tourists, this has not meant that they have had the opportunity to interact with their Christian counterparts. In terms of religious interaction with North Koreans, the av-erage South Korean Christian is uninitiated and unlearned.
In 1992 the NCCK issued a press release which stated that, "a Consultation of North and South Korean Churches around the issue of the peaceful reunification of Korea. . . will be held annually, and the venue for the said Consultation will alternate between Seoul and Py-onyang."
While I do not wish to diminish the significance of North-South Christians meeting in the wonderfully beautiful setting of the Diamond Mountains, I would like to push for a visit by North Korean Christians to South Korea. This is not only an issue of reciprocity because of the fact that Pyongyang has hosted numerous visitors from the South Korean Christian community. It has, I feel, very important practical and psychological implications.
In the past the government did not allow such a visit to take place by the North Koreans. The context in South Korea at present, however, is quite different. I believe that the situa-tion has matured to the extent that Christians from North Korea can be accommodated in the South. Also, the number of average bottom of the line minjung Christians who are able to attend the highly selective and to a certain extent seclusive gathering of Christians at the Diamond Mountains is limited. The degree of interaction and visibility of North Korean Christians, the possibility of actually seeing them speak on issues of faith, of witnessing their witness is sharply reduced by the fact that they are geographically separated from the Christians in South Korea. Indeed, there are many issues that need to be dealt with in order to realize such a visit by North Korean Christians to South Korea. However, I feel that the time has come when we can positively revisit the mutual commitment to hold annual joint consultations with alternating venues in Seoul and Pyongyang.
The efficacy of such a visit by Christians from North Korea, I thin, can twofold. First, it will help to strengthen the North Korean Christian's recognition of and appreciation for the sincerity which lies beneath the South Korean Christian's willingness to engage and co-operate with the Christians of North Korea. Secondly, it will assist the South Korean Christians to put a human face to their Christian brothers and sisters in North Korea, as well as helping them to recognize the Spirit of God working in a place that is beyond the scope of their comprehension and comfort. Another additional bonus that frequent visits by North Korean Christians to South Korea may bring is that their presence in our midst will distill some of the mystical aura surrounding our perception of North Korea and North Koreans, and eventually help to develop and environment where they reciprocal visit by Kim, Jong-Il may be perceived as non-threatening and in fact desirable for fur-thering peace and reunification.
3. Divided Families as a Pastoral Concern
The Korean Christian movement's approach to the pain of the divided family members needs to move beyond perceiving their suffering as merely a humanitarian issue. The al-ternatives that we as Christians advocate should go beyond the remedies proposed by the Red Cross, other NGOs and even the Korean government. It must incorporate a dimen-sion of pastoral care and commitment.
The pain and agony of divided family members does not come to an end by their finally being able to meet. Because the time that they are able to spend together is limited they are inevitably faced with the cruel and tortuous reality of again being separated from their loved ones. While it is important for the Christian movement in Korea to continuously advocate for the reunion of the families on humanitarian grounds, we must at the same time begin to develop a process whereby we are able to provide the spiritual, mental and emotional support that these individuals as human beings created in the image of God require in order to cope with the situations surrounding them, whether it be that of sepa-ration or that of learning anew how to live with each other.
1 Tongilmunjae Hyopeuihwe Kaechwe Banghe-e Kwanhan Seongmyungseo (Statement on the Korean Government's Obstruction of the Consultation on Reunification), Executive Committee, NCCK in Hanguk Kyowhe Pyunghwatongilundong Jaryojip, 1980-2000 (The Documents Relating to the Peace and Reunifi-cation Movement of the Korean Church, 1980-2000) (Committee on Reunification, NCCK: Seoul, 2000), p. 31.
2 "Declaration of the Churches of Korea on National Reunification and Peace" in Christian Conference of Asia, International Christian Network for Democracy in Korea eds., Reunification, Peace and Justice in Ko-rea: Christian Response in the 1980s (CCA/ICNDK: Hong Kong; Seoul, 1988), p. 90.
3 "Finding and Recommendations" in Commission of the Churches on International Affairs, World Council of Churches ed., Background Information 1985, No. 1: Peace and Justice in North east Asia — Prospects
for Peaceful Resolution of Conflicts, Reports and Papers of an Ecumenical Consultation (CCIA/WCC: Geneva, 1985), p. 9.
4 "Korean Church Statement on Peace" in Christian Conference of Asia, International Christian Network for Democracy in Korea eds., Reunification, Peace and Justice in Korea: Christian Response in the 1980s (CCA/ICNDK: Hong Kong; Seoul, 1988), p. 31.
5 s Ibid.
6 Tongilmunjae Hyopeuihwe Kaechwe Banghe-e Kwanhan Seongmyungseo (Statement on the Korean Gov-ernment's Obstruction of the Consultation on Reunification), Executive Committee, NCCK in Hanguk Kyowhe Pyunghwatongilundong Jaryojip, 1980-2000 (The Documents Relating to the Peace and Reunifica-tion Movement of the Korean Church, 1980-2000) (Committee on Reunification, NCCK: Seoul, 2000), p. 31.
7 "Our Position With Regard to Peaceful Reunification — Position Paper 1" issued by the 71st General As-sembly of the Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea (PROK), September 1986 in Hanguk Kyowhe Pyunghwatongilundong Jaryojip, 1980-2000 (The Documents Relating to the Peace and Reunification Movement of the Korean Church, 1980-2000) (Committee on Reunification, NCCK: Seoul, 2000), p. 65.
8 "Declaration of the Churches of Korea on National Reunification and Peace" in Christian Conference of Asia, International Christian Network for Democracy in Korea eds., Reunification, Peace and Justice in Korea: Christian Response in the 1980s (CCA/ICNDK: Hong Kong; Seoul, 1988) p. 90.
9 s Ibid.
11 „Korean Church Statement on Peace“ in Christian Conference of Asia, International Christian Network for Democracy in Korea eds., Reunification, Peace and Justice in Korea: Christian Response in the 1980s (CCA/ICNDK: Hong Kong; Seoul, 1988) p.31.
12 "Declaration of the Churches of Korea on National Reunification and Peace" in Christian Conference of Asia, International Christian Network for Democracy in Korea eds., Reunification, Peace and Justice in Ko-rea: Christian Response in the 1980s (CCA/ICNDK: Hong Kong; Seoul, 1988) p. 91.
13 Ibid., p. 87.
14 Hanguk Kyowhe Pyunghwatongilundong Jaryojip, 1980-2000 (The Documents Relating to the Peace and Reunification Movement of the Korean Church, 1980-2000) (Committee on Reunification, NCCK: Seoul, 2000), p. 15.
15 Tongilmunjae Hyopeuihwe Kaechwe Banghe-e Kwanhan Seongmyungseo (Statement on the Korean Gov-ernment's Obstruction of the Consultation on Reunification), Executive Committee, NCCK in Hanguk Kyowhe Pyunghwatongilundong Jaryojip, 1980-2000 (The Documents Relating to the Peace and Reunifica-tion Movement of the Korean Church, 1980-2000) (Committee on Reunification, NCCK: Seoul, 2000), p. 31.
16 Ibid., pp. 30-1.
17 Ibid., p. 30.
18 Ibid., p. 31.
20 This document is commonly referred to in Korean as the "88 Statement". This was because it was adopted by the 34th Gene-ral Assembly of the NCCK held in 1988.
21 "Declaration of the Churches of Korea on National Reunification and Peace" in Christian Conference of Asia, International Christian Network for Democracy in Korea eds., Reunification, Peace and Justice in Korea: Christian Response in the 1980s (CCA/ICNDK: Hong Kong; Seoul, 1988) p. 90.
22 "Finding and Recommendations" in Peace and Justice in North East Asia — Prospects for Peaceful Resolution of Conflicts, Reports and Papers of an Ecumenical Consultation (CCIA/WCC: Geneva, 1985), p. 13.
23 Ibid., p. 14.
24 Ibid., p. 14.