Zen - Aufsätze von B. Victoria


Aufsätze von Brian Victoria 

Brian Victoria, Visiting Research Fellow, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto.
Brian Daizen Victoria holds an M.A. in Buddhist Studies from Sōtō Zen sectaffiliated Komazawa University in Tokyo, and a Ph.D. from the Department of Religious Studies at Temple University.
In addition to a 2nd, enlarged edition of Zen At War (http://amzn.com/0742539261/?tag=theasipacjo0b-20) (Rowman & Littlefield), major writings include Zen War Stories (http://amzn.com/0700715819/?tag=theasipacjo0b-20) (RoutledgeCurzon); an autobiographical work in Japanese entitled Gaijin de ari, Zen bozu de ari (As a Foreigner, As a Zen Priest); Zen Master Dōgen (http://amzn.com/0834801167/?tag=theasipacjo0b-20), coauthored with Prof. Yokoi Yūhō of Aichi-gakuin University (Weatherhill); and a translation of The Zen Life (http://amzn.com/0834815176/?tag=theasipacjo0b-20) by Sato Koji (Weatherhill).
He is currently a Visiting Research Fellow at the International Research Center for Japanese Studies (aka Nichibunken) in Kyoto.
"Zen at War" erschien 1999 als "Zen, Nationalismus und Krieg  -  ein unheimliche Allianz" im Verlag Theseus (ISBN  3-89620-132-8)
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The Zen of Hitler Jugend
The Tripartite Pact linking Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Imperial Japan was signed in Berlin on September 27, 1940. Less than two months after the pact was signed, a six-member delegation of Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) arrived in Japan. This was actually the second Hitler Jugend delegation to visit Japan, a much larger delegation having first visited in the fall of 1938. In honor of the first delegation's visit, a song was composed entitled Banzai Hitorā Jūgento (Long Live Hitler Youth!). A recording of this song together with photographs highlighting the activities of both the first and second delegations in Japan is embedded below.
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War Remembrance in Japan's Buddhist Cemeteries, Part I: Kannon Hears the Cris of War.
As discussed in Part I, Buddhist temples in Japan have, at least until recently, had a near monopoly on the conduct of funerary rites, including memorial services for the deceased lasting over many years, even generations. Additionally, cemeteries with family, not individual, graves are typically located on temple grounds. Thus, temples play a significant role in the manner in which the deceased are remembered if not eulogized.

Deceased soldiers from the Asian-Pacific War (1931-45) can be eulogized with as simple a designation as that ofeirei(heroic spirit) added to their names on grave markers or other monuments. From there, as introduced in Part I, it can escalate to take on many forms such as statues of Kannon(Skt. Avalokiteśvara, Ch. Guanyin), located either outside or inside of temples, whose compassionate embrace is dedicated to consoling the spirits of deceased soldiers, e.g.,Tokkō Kannon(Kannon for "Special Attack Forces" akaKamikaze pilots).

Part II of this article focuses on the way in which deceased soldiers, and the war they fought in, are remembered and eulogized at the headquarters of the esoteric Shingon sect in Japan located on Mt. Kōya. ....

War Remembrance in Japan's Buddhist Cemeteries, Part II
:  Transforming War Criminals into Martyrs: "True Words" on Mr. Kôya 
Sawaki Kodo, Zen and Wartime Japan: Final Pieces of the Puzle
An earlier article posted at The Asia-Pacific Journal entitled “Zen Masters on the Battlefield” (available here (https://apjjf.org/-Brian-Victoria/4133)) sparked a heated online debate extending over a series of articles concerning the wartime role of Sōtō Zen Master Sawaki Kōdō (1880-1965). 
In light of this debate, I invite readers to join me as I seek to “take readers behind the scenes” to recreate the wartime past of Zen master Sawaki Kōdō. Inasmuch as Sawaki’s war-related statements are already known, the primary focus of this article is a recreation of Sawaki’s wartime activities as the final pieces of a puzzle leading to a comprehensive understanding of this well-known master’s wartime record.

Sōka Gakkai Founder, Makiguchi Tsunesaburō, A Man of Peace?
創価学会の創立者・牧口恒三郎 平和を愛する男?
Readers familiar with my research will know that its focus has been on the wartime actions and statements of Japan’s institutional Buddhist leaders, most especially those affiliated with the Zen school. Nearly to a man, their actions and statements were strongly supportive of Japanese aggression and imperialist actions. In the postwar era many of these same Zen leaders played a seminal role in the introduction of Zen to the West. Thus, it came as a shock to their Western adherents to learn that their beloved Zen masters had once been fervent advocates of aggressive war. They believed, or wanted to believe, that “enlightened” Zen masters were unlike those priests, rabbis, chaplains of other faiths who, with but few exceptions, have always expressed their unstinting support for the wars fought by their nations.
Having revealed the “dark side” of wartime Japanese Buddhism,, I was, as a Buddhist, initially glad to learn of the putative war resistance of Makiguchi Tsunesaburō (1871-1944), founder of a Nichiren sectaffiliated, lay Buddhist organization today known as Sōka Gakkai (Value-Creating Society). ....
“War is a Crime”: Takenaka Shōgen and Buddhist Resistance in the Asia-Pacific War and Today
Narusawa Muneo, Brian Victoria
Translated and with a comment by Brian Daizen Victoria
In this country it is uncommon to have the opportunity to reflect on the conscience of those who were opposed to war. However, now is the time to direct our thoughts to the way of life and words of a Buddhist priest who risked his life in the prewar era to proclaim: “War is a Crime.”
The village of Taruichō in Gifu prefecture once prospered as a stage on the pre-modern Nakasendō main road. Today, when you get off the train at Tarui station on the Tōkaidō line, you find yourself in the midst of an agricultural area full of rice paddies. Travelling by car for another four kilometers eventually takes you to an old temple by the name of Myōsenji, affiliated with the Ōtani branch of the Shin [True Pure Land] sect.
To the left of the main entrance to the temple is a stone pillar on which are inscribed the words: ”War is a Crime.” At the bottom, the pillar states: “This is the temple of Abbot Takenaka Shōgen.” ....
A Zen Nazi in Wartime Japan: Count Dürckheim and his Sources—D.T. Suzuki, Yasutani Haku’un and Eugen HerrigelSources—D.T. Suzuki, Yasutani Haku’un and Eugen Herrigel
戦中日本におけるあるナチス禅宗徒 デュルクハイム伯爵の情報源 鈴木大拙、安谷白雲、オイゲン・ヘリゲル
Introductory Note:  This is the final articloe in a three part series on the relationship of D.T. Suzuki and other Zen figures in wartime Japan to Count Karlfried Dürckheim and other Nazis. Part I of this series, "D.T. Suzuki, Zen and the Nazis "is available here (https://apjjf.org/-Brian-Victoria/4019).
Part II, "The Formation and Principles of Count Dürckheim's Nazi Worldview and his interpretation of Japanese Spirit and Zen" is available here (https://apjjf.org/-Karl-Baier/4041).
Readers who have not yet done so are urged to read at least Part II of this series that provides crucial background information for understanding Part III.

D.T. Suzuki, Zen and the Nazis
鈴木大拙 禅 ナチス (上)
Part One
The always contentious, sometimes highly emotional, debate over D.T. Suzuki’s relationship to Japanese fascism continues unabated. Among other things this is shown by reader reactions to a recent article in Japan Focus entitled “Zen as a Cult of Death in the Wartime Writings of D. T. Suzuki (https://apjjf.org/-Brian-Victoria/3973)". This debate can only intensify by the further assertion of a wartime relationship between D.T. Suzuki and the Nazis or, more precisely, a positive or sympathetic relationship between Suzuki and the Nazis. This article, in two parts, will explore that possibility though conclusive proof of such a relationship will not be included until the second part.
Zen as a Cult of Death in the Wartime Writings of D.T. Suzuki
死の信仰としての禅 鈴木大拙、戦時下の著述
The publication of Zen at War in 1997 and, to a lesser extent, Zen War Stories in 2003 sent shock waves through Zen Buddhist circles not only in Japan, but also in the U.S. and Europe. These books revealed that many leading Zen masters and scholars, some of whom became well known in the West in the postwar era, had been vehement if not fanatical supporters of Japanese militarism. In the aftermath of these revelations, a number of branches of the Zen school, including the Myōshinji branch of the Rinzai Zen sect, acknowledged their war responsibility. A proclamation issued on 27 September 2001 by the Myōshinji General Assembly included the following passage:
As we reflect on the recent events [of 11 September 2001] in the U.S. we recognize that in the past our country engaged in hostilities, calling it a “holy war,” and inflicting great pain and damage in various countries. Even though it was national policy at the time, it is truly regrettable that our sect, in the midst of wartime passions, was unable to maintain a resolute anti-war stance and ended up cooperating with the war effort. In light of this we wish to confess our past transgressions and critically reflect on our conduct. .....
Zen Masters on the Battlefield (Part I)
Introductory Note:
This is the first of a two part series describing the wartime roles of two of
Japan’s best-known 20th century Zen masters, Sawaki Kōdō (1880-1965) and Nakajima Genjō
(1915-2000). Beginning with the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, followed by the Asia-
Pacific War of 1937-45, these masters left a record not only of their battlefield experiences
but, more importantly, the relationship they saw between their Buddhist faith and war.
Additionally, each was affiliated with one of Japan’s two main Zen sects, i.e., Sawaki was a
Sōtō Zen priest while Nakajima was a priest in the Rinzai Zen sect. Finally, Sawaki served as a
soldier in the Imperial Army during the Russo-Japanese War, while Nakajima was a sailor in
the Imperial Navy during the Asia-Pacific War.
Part I focuses on Sawaki Kōdō. Part II covers Nakajima Genjō. ....
Zen Masters on the Battlefield (Part II)
In Part I of this series we looked at the battlefield experiences of Sōtō Zen Master Sawaki Kōdō during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5. Sawaki’s battlefield reminiscences are relatively short, especially as he had been severely wounded early in the war. Nevertheless, he was able to express the relationship he saw between Zen and war on numerous occasions in the years that followed. In the case of Zen Master Nakajima Genjō (1915-2000) we have a Rinzai Zen Master whose battlefield experiences are much more extensive, extending over many years. On the other hand, Nakajima’s postwar discussions of his battlefield experiences are far more limited than those of Sawaki. This is not surprising when we consider that, unlike the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, which Japan won, the Asia-Pacific War of 1937-45 of which Nakajima was a part ended in disaster for Japan. Nevertheless, in terms of understanding the relationship between Zen and war, Nakajima’s battlefield experiences have much to teach us. ...

Buddhism and Disasters: From World War II to Fukushima 
This article explores the longstanding relationship between Buddhism and disasters in Japan, focusing on Buddhism's role in the aftermath of the Asia-Pacific War and the Tohoku disaster of March 2011. Buddhism is well positioned to address these disasters because of its emphasis on the centrality of suffering derived from the impermanent nature of existence. Further, parallels between certain Buddhist doctrines and their current, disaster-related cultural expressions in Japan are examined. It is also suggested that Japanese Buddhism revisit certain socially regressive doctrinal interpretations. ....

Karma, War and Inequality in Twentieth Century Japan
While “karma” is used so often in the West today that it has become almost a household word, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the socio-political role played by karma in Asian societies, past or present. In fact, it is no exaggeration to say that the very idea of karma having a socio-political role will come as a surprise to many. That is to say, how could an ethical concept like karma, commonly associated with the good or bad effects of an
individual’s acts, play a role in collective entities like society and politics?
This article examines the socio-political use of karma in twentieth-century Japan, beginning with the Meiji Restoration of 1868. In doing so, however, it is important to realize that Meiji Buddhist leaders did not suddenly concoct a new interpretation of karma, for what they wrote had ample precedent in East Asian Buddhism. For example, at the conclusion of one of the most famous and influential Mahayana scriptures, the Lotus Sutra, we learn:
Whoever in future ages shall receive and keep, read and recite this sutra,   ....