Danger of Radiation - 30 Monate danach
Radioaktivität - Atomkraft
KATAOKA Heiwa (Tokyo), Anti-Atomkraft Aktivist aus Tohoku, hat in den vielen Monaten nach 3/11 (2011) Fakten zusammengetragen und in Relation zueinander gesetzt. Seine Ergebnisse sind besorgniserregend.
Das Dokument liegt in Englisch und in Japanisch vor und kann als pdf-Datei hier heruntergeladen werden.
Auf dieser Seite fehlen alle Grafiken und Statistiken. Der vollständige Text mit den Anmerkungen ist in der pdf-Datei enthalten.
Danger of Radiation –version 3
People say “I’m not sure about danger of radiation since there is natural radioactivity” etc., and nowadays, I ask myself how I can answer to them. My answer is that academic researches on radiation are not yet fully scientific, which means effect of radiation on a human body is not like mathematics or experiments we studied in elementary schools which everyone can lead to the same answer under a certain condition. Therefore, it is necessary to collect information into a leaflet to understand danger of radiation and to argue against uncritical opinion whichprovokes misinterpretation that radiation is safety at some level.
I. Radiation attacks DNA: thinking about danger of radiation on human body at DNA level.
(1) DNA molecular structure connects at 0.25 to 7.9eV (electron-volt).1 Diagram.2
(2) Unit of radioactive energy is million eV (MeV). Radiation ionizes DNA base pair and breaks the connection with million times higher energy. See Data 1&2.
• Don’t misinterpret danger of artificial and natural nuclides.They are different in biological half-life period. Ex: “A Banana has Potassium, K-40, doesn’t it?”3
(3) Chromosome aberration which failed to lead to cell deathcauses MDS or leukemia.4
(4) Before DNA is found in history, a permissible range of radiation exposure is set in relation to promotion of nuclear industry.5
• On 1952, DNA is found byHershey, A.D. and Chase, M.6
• On 1925, ICR First International Conference (changed name as ICRP on 1950), nuclear development between the US and the Soviet Union (1939), Manhattan Plan (1942), A-bomb on Hiroshima & Nagasaki (1945), Three Mile Island Accident (1979), Chernobyl Accident (1986)…
II. ICRP risk model doesn’t reflect the latest scientific knowledge.
(1) The model is based on A-bomb data of Hiroshima & Nagasaki; Acute, high rate, external exposurebygamma (γ) rays
• As a result of reexamination of Japan-US researchon A-bomb survivors in late 80’s,former stochastic effect of radiation exposure is modified into half; 0.5% statistically significant variation of cancer & leukemia after exposed 50mSv.7
(2) Defect of the ICRP risk model
• ICRPrisk model is made in demand of nuclear industrial policy.
• The model concerning effect of “low-level” radiation exposure under 100 mSv insertsa dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF), and halves deterministic effect of A-bomb survivors’ exposure data. Additionally, it reduces 20 % as a permissible range of radiation exposure for exposed workers.8 (Fig. left)
• Hormesis effect:【Experiment 1 Fig. below】35 mice are injected 0.5mg carcinogen to groin and are exposed by Cs 137 for 35 days. Non-exposed are located behind 60cm concrete wall. Group of 1200μGy/h exposed indicates statistically significant variation of tumorigenic reduction rate.9
【Experiment 2】350, 700, 1200μGy/hexposed for 1-8 weeks indicates inhibition and delay of subcutaneous cancer.10
• Other scientific knowledge: Petkau effect, Reactive Oxygen Species, Free Radicals
(3) Cause of death in Belarus is heart disease in 52.7% because of contaminated food distribution.11Abnormal electrocardiogram of children and Cs137 concentration in body are related. Over 10Bq/kg indicates statistically significance and almost none of children have normal electrocardiogram in 100Bq/kg concentration.
(4) Whole Body Counter (WBC) measurement data of children and adults around Tokyo (Tokyo, Saitama, Kanagawa and Chiba Prefecture).12
Cs137 concentration in body over 10Bq/kg is in
• Children, age of 2 to 16, 23 people (21%). 104 cases from March to June 2013.
• Adults, age of 18 to 71, 10 people (2.6%). 404 cases from March to June 2013.
• WBC measurement data in Minami-Souma city, Fukushima Pref. set detection limit at 250Bq/body. It is necessary to decrease the limit because considerable cases may not be detected. For example;
240Bq/body ÷ 20kg = 12Bq/kg
240Bq/body ÷ 16kg = 15Bq/kg
(5) After the Chernobyl and before the Fukushima Accident, Cs137 concentration in adult’s body of Japan is about 20Bq.
• Figure is a WBC measurement data from 1963 to 1994, quoted from Health Physics 71, 322 (1996). 531Bq/body in 1964 was the max. because of the Atmospheric Nuclear Testing in early 60’s. The Chernobylone harmed a little higher in the middle.
• The Fukushima Accident caused1000-3000Bq/body in Fukushima Pref., the red circle and 100-400Bq/body all over Japan, the purple circle.
III. ICRP risk model underestimates too much on effect of internal exposure
(1) “(Thus) it would not distinguish between the average energy transferred to a man warming himself in front of a fire and a man eating a red hot coal.” 13
(2) The model combines utterly different academic fields: Sievert is physics and effect of radiation exposure is biology.
Sievert= absorbed dose (Gy)*radiation weighting factor (WR)*tissue weighting factor (WT)14
(3) Estimation of internal exposure is several times different depend on risk models.15
• Spinach of Ibaraki Pref. next to Fukushima16: (I131)24,000Bq/kg, (Cs134+137) 690Bq/kg
• Scholars beholden to the government say OK to eat this contaminated spinach because people will eat only about 200g a day; no one eat 1kg spinach a day and if people has already eaten, don’t worry, it’s less than 1mSv and there’s half-life period as well.
(4) Reality of internal exposure: continuous exposure to a certain range of tissue in an organ.
ICRP model averages and scatters the damage to the organ itself.
*Alfa ray exposes tissues within 40μm, 0.04mm (Nuclides such as Pu and U)
*Beta ray exposes tissues within 10mm, 1cm breaking 8-20 molecules (Nuclides such as Cs137 and Sr90)
【How to measure】
Alfa and Beta ray: bioassay technique, testing feces, urine, skin or hair.
Gamma ray: Whole Body Counter
IV. Regard Micro-Sievert per Hour (μSv/h), measurement of air dose rate only as a guide.17
(1) Annual effective dose limit to the public18
(2) Natural radioactivity19
• 0.05(soil) +0.038 (cosmic)＝0.088μSv/h in Tokyo
(3) Math formula into per year
• *8,760 (24hours *365days)
• 0.11μSv/h→0.9636 mSv/y
(4) The original math formula of MEXT, Government of Japan.20
• 1 day＝8 hours outside＋16 hours inside (shielding effect of wooden house, 40%)
• 0.19μSv/h* (8 hours＋16 hours*0.4)*365 days= 0.9986mSv/year
(5) Ministry of the Environment, “The Idea of the Additional annual effective dose, 1mSv”.21
• 0.19μSv/h (MEXT formula)＋0.04μSv/h (soil)＝0.23μSv/h
V. Idea of a standard: radioactive contamination has no medical benefit, should be escaped.
(1) Civic movements should not premise a standard of radiation controlled area in hospitals.22
(2) Protection standard of the Chernobyl law enacted in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia on 1991.23
Annual dose Area classification in Japan Area classification in the Chernobyl law Soil contamination（Cs137） 50 mSv over Exclusion zone Exclusion zone
(forced evacuation) 1480 kBq/㎡ over 20-50 mSv Accommodation restricted area (possible to temporary return) Less than
20 mSv Preparing for deregulation of evacuation instruction 5 mSv over Habitable Duty of relocation zone 555 kBq/㎡ over 1-5 mSv Right of relocation zone 185-555 kBq/㎡ 0.5-1 mSv Radiation control zone
(Strict monitoring is necessary) 37-185 kBq/㎡
(3) Carcinogenic rate in northern Sweden: 100 kBq/㎡ (Cs137) increases cancer in 11%.24
(4) A-bomb survivors who exposed 1mSv got healthcare support by the government.25
(5) Japanese Communist Party, Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly Members measured air dose rate 116 points, soil contamination 55 points. Report on June 11th, 2012.26
Eastern part of Tokyo is listed as worst 6.
Katsushika ward (1,2,4,5)
Edogawa ward (3)
Sumida ward (6)
(6) Contamination of tap water in Northeastern and Eastern Japan.
From the left in the chart, name of municipality, data of I131, Cs134, Cs137.
VI. Countermeasure against contamination: measure, eat a diet rich in mineral, careful foods.
(1) Measuring radiation: air dose rate (μSv/h), contamination (Bq), WBC or urine test.
(2) Consciously take foodsrich in minerals (Na,Mg,K andCa), and non-contaminated fermented foods such as Japanese Miso.
(3) Careful to foodstuffs once or still regulated for shipment and consumption.28 Safety standard of foodstuffsin Japan is 100Bq/kg, which is still high.
【In Fukushima Pref.】mountain vegetables, Japanese plums, citrons, chestnuts, kiwi【Eastern Japan】river fishes, demersal fishes, wild animal’s meat, green teas in Kanagawa Pref., wild mushrooms in Yamanashi, Nagano and Shizuoka Pref.
(4) A group established on December 2011 in Miyagi Pref. made a good chart of NG foods.29
It is available only in Japanese.
【Data1】Where is DNA located?
Human body consists of 10 to 100 trillion cells, which differ in weights. 1g tissues have a billion cells.30
Since cells have much moisture, if they are ionized by radiation, they produce molecules that damage cells and genes. The molecules are called Reactive Oxygen Species or Free Radicals, which cause cancer if gene repair failed and reproduced.
Reactive Oxygen Species are collective term of reactive compounds including oxygen molecule. Basically, ROS work when mitochondria breaks down oxygen or white blood cells and enzyme are produced.
Free Radical is a molecule that has more than one unpaired electron. For further info.
【Data 2】How high energy does radiation have?31
Artificial and natural nuclides are different in biological half-life period. Artificial nuclides don’t have limit of accumulation in human body. Radioactive and non-radioactive iodine accumulates in thyroid gland. Some nuclides respond and accumulate alike in human body. Ex. Cesium134, 137 and Potassium, Strontium89, 90 and Calcium.32
Danger of radiation should be considered at the micro level of DNA damage. The ICRP risk model that continues to seek a permissible range of radiation exposure based on Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors’ data doesn’t reflect latest scientific knowledge. The government of Japan even misconstrues the ICRP risk model and forces radiation exposure of 20mSv per year. Effect of internal exposure has a lot of questions that haven’t been answered yet, and the effect varies among different individuals. Radiation contamination has no medical benefit; hence it should be escaped. It is necessary to measure air dose rate which could be regarded only as a guide, to seek a means to discharge contamination already accumulated inside of body and to take foods rich in minerals and non-contaminated fermented foods consciously.
1HitomiKamanaka, ShuntaroHida “内部被曝の脅威, Danger of Internal Exposure”, ChikumaShobo, 2005, 85p
2KatsumaYagasaki, Toshiya Morita “内部被曝, Naibuhibaku”, Iwanami Shoten, 2012
3K-40 will accumulate at certain level on human body and will be discharged. See Data2
4NHK Special “Struggle against never ending radiation exposure”, August 6th, 2013http://tinyurl.com/kooxez4
5Shing02 “僕と核, Me and Nuke 2011”, History of Nuclear Industry and Hibakusha (1920-2011)
7Hiroaki Koide, Ningyo-dani lawsuit opinion, March 9th, 2005 http://www.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/NSRG/Ningyo-toge/appeal-1.pdf
8ICRP1990 recommendation proposes to halve A-bomb survivors’ lifelong risk 1.0E-2/Sv to estimate risk for public and exposed workers. Research Organization for Information Science and Technology (RIST) Nuclear Encyclopedia ATOMICA
NHK TV Program “Low-level exposure, swaying global standard”, Dec. 28th, 2011 http://t.co/IxK3D2bN0H
9Report of Central Research Institute of Electronic Power Industry, Low Dose Radiation Research Center 2003
10Id. 2004 http://criepi.denken.or.jp/jp/kenkikaku/report/leaflet/G03011.pdf
11YuryBandazhevsky lecture in Tokyo, June 10th to 21st, 2013 http://togetter.com/li/537051
12The NPO Men-ekiRyohouwoShiensuru Kai has over 700 WBC measurement data in November 2013.
13ECRR, The European Committee on Radiation Risk 2010 Recommendation, 10phttp://www.euradcom.org/2011/ecrr2010.pdf
14The Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan (FEPC), Chap. 6, 19p.Factor is quoted from ICRP Pub. 103 (2007)
15Sv/Bq conversion tool (ICRP oral intake and ECRR) http://www.mikage.to/radiation/internal_exposure.html
16Asahi Newspaper etc. March 20th, 2011. Spinach is picked on the 18th.
17KAZE to HIKARI http://tinyurl.com/nn4elxf
1850-100mSv/y for exposed workers’ limit. ICRP 1990 Recommendation
19Air dose rate in Tokyo before March 11th, 2011.The Geological Society of Japanhttp://www.geosociety.jp/hazard/content0058.html#map
20Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), August 26th, 2011
21Ministry of the Environment, October 10th, 2011http://www.env.go.jp/press/file_view.php?serial=18437&;hou_id=14327
22 radiation controlled area in hospitals are limited to 1.3mSv exposure in 3months, which is 0.58μSv/h.
23OurPlanetTv interview of a Liquidator of Chernobyl, May 24th, 2012.Etc.
24Id. ECRR2010 Recommendation, 6p.
25Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. 117th law, 1994 http://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kenkou/genbaku09/08.html
26JCP, Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly Members research 2/15、3/2~4、5/4~6/10
27 Nuclear Regulation Authority, Japan “Measurement of tap water” July to September, 2013
28Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, October 3rd, 2013
Chidaism, a blogger who measure foods and other stuffs everyday lists strictly. http://ameblo.jp/c-dai/entry-11337148570.html
29Save Children from Radiation Exposure, Tagajo, Miyagi Pref. “NG foods and production area” April, 2013 http://tinyurl.com/mts7oac
30Figure in Shing02 “Me and Nukes 2012” http://www.e22.com/atom2/page05.htm
31 Asahi Newspaper, AERA, June 27th, 2011. METI, October 20th, 2011. Websites as follows
32Doctor Shun-ichi Ono’s Bloghttp://onodekita.sblo.jp/article/48419822.html
As for comparison in biological half-life period of artificial and natural nuclides, good figure in Shing02
“Me and Nukes 2012”http://www.e22.com/atom2/page03.htm